Deploying Kubernetes Cluster With Ingress and Load Balancer on DigitalOcean

This article will give you the a simple way how to deploy a kubernetes cluster and it’s components on DigitalOcean Managed Kubernetes (DOKS).

Along with my learning journey with kubernetes, I started to get my hands on trying kubernetes on DigitalOcean. It’s actually one of my favorite hosting platform that also offers Kubernetes managed service (DOKS). I have some of my small projects running on k8s on DO, since it’s very easy to deploy and I can run completely manged k8s cluster with only 15 dollars per month!

Getting started

So now I’m going to deploy a new kubernetes cluster and try to run a simple service along with it. Not only that, I want my service to be internal and to have the ingress controller and a Load balancer in front of the cluster to serve the traffic.

Let’s take a look at the picture below, if you familiar with k8s, this diagram must be quite straightforward. It starts with Load balancer and with ingress controller, the traffic goes through the internal service and eventually ended up to the pods.

Image by
Image by


There are things you want to prepare before deploying kubernetes cluster on DO :


If everything set, let’s continue with the implementation. So as I mentioned before, deploying managed kubernetes cluster on DigitalOcean is quite straightforward.

Deploy cluster

First step, let’s deploy a new cluster on DOKS. We can do that simply by using doctl command line.

$ doctl kubernetes cluster create my-cluster --node-pool "name=my-cluster-node;size=s-1vcpu-2gb;count=1" --region sgp1

The command execution will result to create a new kubernetes cluster along with the node pool with only one node and minimum spec. You might want to change the parameters depends on your preference and also to change the region. In this testing, I’m deploying to Singapore region (sgp1).

and we just need to wait until it finished. The output will look like this:

Notice: Cluster is provisioning, waiting for cluster to be running
Notice: Cluster created, fetching credentials
Notice: Adding cluster credentials to kubeconfig file found in "/home/.kube/config"
Notice: Setting current-context to do-sgp1-my-cluster
ID Name Region Version Auto Upgrade Status Node Pools
d570cdaa-c985-495c-b6e7-d005aa1ef5dd my-cluster sgp1 1.20.2-do.0 false running my-cluster-node

Once the provisioning finished, check the current-context to make sure we’re on the exact cluster.

$ kubectl config current-context

If everything looks good, then we have a new k8s cluster provisioned. Let’s continue to setup other stuff.

Deploy the internal service

Once we have deployed the cluster, if we take a look at the console (, it will showing my new cluster :

And let’s create a YAML file to define our internal service.

# service.yml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: test-backend
  type: ClusterIP
    app: test-app
    - port: 80
      targetPort: 80
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: test-app
  replicas: 2
      app: test-app
        app: test-app
      - image: tutum/hello-world:latest
        name: test-app
        - containerPort: 80
          protocol: TCP

Apply the YAML file :

$ kubectl apply -f service.yml
service/test-backend created
deployment.apps/test-app created

Check the service and if the pods are already running:

$ kubectl get service
kubernetes ClusterIP <none> 443/TCP 129m
test-backend ClusterIP <none> 80/TCP 28m
$ kubectl get pods
test-app-65f85568c4-4t685 1/1 Running 0 29m
test-app-65f85568c4-6q49w 1/1 Running 0 29m

It looks like everything set and we already deployed our first internal service on kubernetes DigitalOcean. Let’s move on!

Deploy the ingress controller and Load Balancer

$ kubectl apply -f
namespace/ingress-nginx created
serviceaccount/ingress-nginx created
configmap/ingress-nginx-controller created created created created created
service/ingress-nginx-controller-admission created
service/ingress-nginx-controller created
deployment.apps/ingress-nginx-controller created created
serviceaccount/ingress-nginx-admission created created created created created
job.batch/ingress-nginx-admission-create created
job.batch/ingress-nginx-admission-patch created

Note that after applied the ingress controller, it also deployed a new load balancer automatically:

And let’s create a new YAML file for the ingress definition:

# ingress.yml
kind: Ingress
  name: my-ingress
  annotations: "nginx"
  - host:
      - path: /
          serviceName: test-backend
          servicePort: 80

As usual, apply the YAML file :

$ kubectl apply -f ingress.yml created

View the ingress :

$ kubectl get ingress
my-ingress <none> 80 5m34s

As you can see, after we have deployed the ingress, we will get the external IP address which is came from the external Load Balancer DigitalOcean. And as I mentioned before, I have created a new record on my DNS provider, and point the record to the IP address of Load Balancer. so I can access the app via

Finally, let’s check our new app on browser. If it’s working fine, we should be able to see this web page :

If you got any questions, let me know in the comments!

Setup kubernetes cluster in Ubuntu 20.04 from scratch

Hello again, this article is a walk through how to setup your own kubernetes cluster with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Some steps are very straightforward, and you can directly follow along while you try to setup yourself.

So before get started, I tried this using 2 ubuntu servers :

    • ks8-master : 2gb memory, 2vCPUs
    • k8s-node-0 : 1gb memory, 1vCPU

I believe this is the cheapest kubernetes cluster specs that you can get. The purpose of this is only to try to init the cluster from the get-go and do the simple deployment. So here it goes :

Install the docker and disable the swap on all k8s nodes :

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install -y
$ sudo systemctl start docker
$ sudo systemctl enable docker
$ sudo sed -i '/ swap / s/^\(.*\)$/#/g' /etc/fstab
$ sudo swapoff -a

Enable the port forwarding on all k8s nodes:

To enable the ip forwarding permanently, edit the file “/etc/sysctl.conf” and look for line “net.ipv4.ip_forward=1″ and un-comment it. After making the changes in the file, execute the following command :

$ sudo sysctl -p
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

Install k8s packages on all k8s nodes :

Execute the following command on all nodes :

$ sudo apt install -y apt-transport-https curl
$ curl -s | sudo apt-key add
$ sudo apt-add-repository "deb kubernetes-xenial main"
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl

Init the cluster on k8s master :

On k8s master, now let’s init the cluster :

$ kubeadm init

This command will give you the output something like this :

Error when running kubectl

After ini the cluster, I encountered error that prevent me to run kubectl command :

The connection to the server localhost:8080 was refused – did you specify the right host or port?

If you also face the same issue, the solution is simply to run this command :

$ mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
$ sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
$ sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

Install network plugin on k8s master :

In this tutorial, I use Calico (

$ kubectl apply -f

Enable bash completion for kubectl commands

This following command is optional, but recommended. It is to enable the bash completion, when you executing kubectl sub commands. Do this on k8s master :

$ echo 'source <(kubectl completion bash)' >>~/.bashrc
$ source .bashrc

Enable nginx ingress

Enable ingress with nginx on k8s master :

$ kubectl apply -f

How to join the k8s node to k8s master :

Once the k8s master is ready, then we need to connect the k8s node to the master. We can simply do that by SSH to the k8s node, and execute the join command that we got after cluster creation completed.

$ kubeadm join --token htsn3w.juidt9j3t4zbgu3t --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ea2e5654fb6e8bc31be463f60177f3b5d31b1da5019a20fd7a2336435b970a77

Check on the k8s master whether the nodes are ready :

$ kubectl get nodes
k8s-master Ready control-plane,master 24h v1.20.1
k8s-node-0 Ready <none> 24h v1.20.1

if you get to see the nodes ready and we’re set. Now we can continue with the deployment.

Deploy nginx on k8s cluster

Now, we come to the fun stuff.  After cluster is ready, and let’s deploy something on it. Let’s create deployment for nginx, the easy one.

From k8s master, save this file below as nginx-deployment.yml (or whatever you can call it).

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: nginx-deployment
  replicas: 1
      run: nginx-deployment
        run: nginx-deployment
      - image: nginx
        name: nginx-webserver
        - containerPort: 8080

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: nginx-service
  type: NodePort
    run: nginx-deployment
    - port: 80

Then create deployment from this file :

$ kubectl create -f nginx-deployment.yml
deployment.apps/nginx-deployment created
service/nginx-service created

Check the deployment, whether it has succeed :

$ kubectl get deployments
nginx-deployment 1/1   1          1         110s

Now, you see the nginx deployment has started the replica, and it’s now running fine.

Next, you can check whether the service has deployed :

$ kubectl get services
kubernetes    ClusterIP     <none>      443/TCP      34h
nginx-service NodePort <none>      80:30992/TCP 5m27s

We can see the nginx service is already in place, and since the deployment already succeed, let’s also check whether nginx is really running by testing the cluster IP. So we can do something like :

$ curl

and the output is :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
body {
width: 35em;
margin: 0 auto;
font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href=””></a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href=””></a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>

Yes, the nginx now running successfully!

Increase replica

Next, lets try to increase the replica of the existing deployment. We want to increase the replica from 1 to 4. By doing that, we just need to update the yml file we just deployed with.

$ vim nginx-deployment.yml

I set the font to bold to indicates that line that I altered in the file. Change the number with the desired number.

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: nginx-deployment
  replicas: 4
      run: nginx-deployment
        run: nginx-deployment
      - image: nginx
        name: nginx-webserver
        - containerPort: 8080

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: nginx-service
  type: NodePort
    run: nginx-deployment
    - port: 80

Save the file again, and run the command to update the deployment :

$ kubectl apply -f nginx-deployment.yml
deployment.apps/nginx-deployment unchanged
service/nginx-service unchanged

And also check whether the number of replicas have increased :

$ kubectl get deployments nginx-deployment
nginx-deployment 4/4   4          4         14h

so if the number of replicas already equal with desired count, then we have successfully scaled up the service.

Another related k8s articles :

Run containerized python app in kubernetes

Run containerized python app in kubernetes

First of all we need a Docker image that will be run inside the kubernetes cluster. So I assumed that we already have a kubernetes cluster. So the next we do is to build the docker image or you can use your docker image yourself.

But in this tutorial, I will show you how to run the containerized python app with my version from the start.

What we need

These applications should be installed on your local machine before get started. In my case, I use my remote server with ubuntu 16.04 installed.

1. Docker
2. Kubernetes

Setup Kubernetes on Ubuntu 16.04

Build docker image

Let’s begin with clone of of my repo that contains Dockerfile to build the image:

$ git clone
$ cd docker-images/simple-python-app/
~/docker-images/simple-python-app$ sudo docker build -t simple .

Wait until the process successfully built. And then you’ll see a new docker image when you type this command:

$ docker images

Push docker image to repository (docker hub)

Before pushing the image to docker hub, we need to tag the successfully built image.

$ docker tag fbd064597ae4 cerpin/simple:1.0

Push the image

$ docker push cerpin/simple
The push refers to a repository []
bc69ee44ef1a: Pushed 
7957c9ab59bb: Pushed 
2366fc011ccb: Pushed 
b18f9eea2de6: Pushed 
6213b3fcd974: Pushed 
fa767832af66: Pushed 
bcff331e13e3: Mounted from cerpin/test 
2166dba7c95b: Mounted from cerpin/test 
5e95929b2798: Mounted from cerpin/test 
c2af38e6b250: Mounted from cerpin/test 
0a42ee6ceccb: Mounted from cerpin/test

After it pushed. You will have the docker image in the repository and ready to use it:


Run the image in kubernetes

First of all, I’m not a big fan of kubectl command, so I usually make a symlink to create the shorter version of kubectl:

$ sudo ln -s /usr/bin/kubectl /usr/bin/cap

Run the docker image in kubernetes

$ cap run simple --image=cerpin/simple:1.0

Then the container will be created. Just wait a moment until the state becomes Running

$ cap get pods
simple-79d85db8b9-466kd 1/1 Running 0 26m

After it’s ready, expose the service with port 5002 to become LoadBalancer. So the service will be accessible from the outside world

$ cap expose deployment simple --type=LoadBalancer --port=5002

Check the service that has been exposed:

$ cap get services
simple LoadBalancer <pending> 5002:31969/TCP 21m

You will see that the service will have forwarded port to 31969 from 5002.

If you open up the browser and navigate to http://external IP:31969, you’ll see the app is running.

Or, just use a curl command instead:

$ curl
"message": "welcome", 
"status": "ok"

Setup Kubernetes on Ubuntu 16.04


This setup is supposedly to install the kubernetes on ubuntu machine with version 16.04 (64bit). I did this in the cloud and have worked perfectly.

# whoami && pwd
# apt-get update
# apt-get install -y apt-transport-https
# curl -s | sudo apt-key add -
# echo "deb kubernetes-xenial main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list
# apt-get update -y
# apt install
# apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubernetes-cni

Check the swaps, if there any, swith them off

# /proc/swaps

Init kubernetes for the first time using kubeadm:

# kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr= --apiserver-advertise-address=<private IP>

*Note: Change <private IP> to <public IP>, if you run the kubernetes master on single node and wish to publicly open.

# cp /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/
# export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/admin.conf
# echo "export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/admin.conf" | tee -a ~/.bashrc

Check pods status, wait until all running

# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces

When their status are RUNNING, moving forward install the network/flannel. Please choose between these two below, I prefer to use the calico one (the second).

# kubectl apply -f
# kubectl apply -f

# or

# kubectl apply -f

Continue to taint the nodes:

# kubectl taint nodes --all

Install kubernetes dashboard

# kubectl apply -f

Create user dashboard


apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin-user
  namespace: kube-system


kind: ClusterRoleBinding
  name: admin-user
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin-user
  namespace: kube-system
# kubectl create -f create-user.yml
# kubectl create -f create-role.yml
# kubectl -n kube-system describe secret $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | grep admin-user | awk '{print $1}')

How to set the kubernetes dashboard to publicly accessible with public IP

Read this :—1.7.X-and-above


Kubernetes cheatsheet

To list all deployments:

kubectl get deployments --all-namespaces

To delete deployment:

kubectl delete -n NAMESPACE deployment DEPLOYMENT

To get admin user token dashboard

kubectl -n kube-system describe secret $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | grep admin-user | awk '{print $1}')

Allow master to run pod

kubectl taint nodes --all

To join master node

kubeadm join --token <some-token> <host-master>:6443 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:<some-sha256-hash>